Shown here is the derivation of the equation for a fractional divider (FD) along with the verilog code implementation. This code has been tested to work on a Spartan 3AN and is available on Bitbucket.

The purpose of this FD is to give higher resolution in a digital PLL without increasing the clock frequency. A common divider will have an output frequency of **fout= fosc/N**. The small signal gain using this as a VCO is df/dN = -fosc/N^2 =** -fref/N**. This is the frequency resolution in Hz per count or also known as the channel spacing.

The basis of this derivation comes from a TI Technical Brief SWRA029. The basic principal is to count N+1 counts for m cycles and N counts for M-m cycles. The total number of counts is the sum {(N+1)*m + N*(M-m)} and the total cycles are m + (M-m) = M. From this simple equation the average counts per cycle is **Nbar = N + m/M**.

The output frequency is fout = fosc/Nbar = fosc/(N +m/M) = **(fosc/N)*1/(1 + m/(N*M))**. Because the term m/(N*M) is much smaller than 1 this can be approximated as fref = (fosc/N)*(1 – m/(N*M)). Remember 1/(1+x) ~= (1-x) for x<< 1.

Now the small signal gain of the VCO is df/dm = -(fosc/N)/(N*M) = **-fref/(N*M)**. We have increased the resolution by a factor of M. This is important to reduce the limit cycle effects of a closed loop system with dead-band, which occurs in a discrete system such as this.

In the verilog code this is parameterized by the constant fsze. Using fsze= 3 (bits) we have M=8. In effect we are using the input divided as a integer with fractional bits, yyyy.xxx.

The verilog implementation has two counters. The main counter is dividing by the integer count N. A second counter is down counting from M-1 and rolling over at 0. When the main counter down counts to zero it is loaded with N or N-1 depending on whether m is larger or smaller the the count in the M counter.

This code has been tested with fosc=50MHz N=68750 and fsze= 3 & 4 in a digital PLL.The code was simulated using Veritakwin and synthesized using Xilinx Project Navigator 14.7.